TO USE MARINADES AND MARINATING
TIPS BY TALLYRAND
is flavour enhancement by absorption, by osmosis; it
is a technique that was originally used when they had
no refrigeration to keep foods fresh, it was done to
preserve foods and it was also done to disguise the
often putrid taste of the meats. Thankfully this is
no longer the case, instead we use it to infuse certain
flavours to enhance the full natural flavour of foods
or to add to them. Sure, we can still use long marinating
times and preserve the foods this way if we desire,
but with a little advance knowledge and shorter marinating
times we now can use it to just enhance the natural
flavours of the foods.
result of marinating is that it helps break down the
tough proteins of foods; what many commonly refer to
as ‘gristle’, like the collagen and elastin in meats.
There by making the meats more palatable, easier to
chew and seeming more tender.
there are two types of marinades; dry ones and wet ones.
Which one to use depends on many factors:
the capillary action of salt to break down the proteins,
it also helps to infuse the other flavours by drawing
them in. Or they utilise the natural strong flavours
of the marinating ingredients; such as garlic to in
set the flavour.
ones by comparison utilise acids to break down the proteins;
acids such as lemon juice or vinegar and again use the
natural strong flavours of the marinating ingredients
to add flavour.
types of foods can be marinated?
anything from meats to fish to fruits and vegetables.
long does one marinade?
depends on the foods:
cuts of meats (over 2kg)
hours to overnight
cuts of meat
to 3 hours
hours to overnight
of fish (depending on size)
hour to overnight
to 3 hours
why marinate/cure meats?
add flavour and to preserve. Old-time butcher shops
closed every weekend and ice the only refrigerant available,
could not dependably hold fresh meat for two days. To
keep unsold meat from going to waste, the butcher soaked
the meat in a strong brine or covered it with coarse
salt to trigger osmosis (the movement of water across
a membrane from weak solutions toward strong solutions).
The grains of salt were called "corn" in England,
and the name "corned beef" stuck with the
is the process of preserving the foods by a form of
dehydration by the addition of a chemical. It is also
used to add other flavours to the foods
are the commonly used curing compounds?
sugar and sodium nitrate. Salt and sugar both cure meat
by osmosis, in addition to drawing the water from the
food, they dehydrate and kill the bacteria that make
food spoil. Commercially though, the word "cure"
refers to processing the meat with either sodium nitrite
or sodium nitrate. Sodium nitrite is the basis
for two commercially used products: Prague powders #1
mixture of 1 part sodium nitrite and 16 parts salt.
The chemicals are combined and crystallised to assure
even distribution. Even though diluted, only 100gm of
Prague powder #1 is required to cure 45kg of meat. A
more typical measurement for home use is 1 tsp per 2kg
mixture of 1 ounce of sodium nitrite and 0.64 ounces
sodium nitrate per pound of finished product. The remaining
14.36 ounces is sodium chloride (salt).
know you know a little of the whys and wherefores, I
hope you are now dying to give it a go? So all that
is left to answer is the hows . . .
the knowledge that a wet marinade needs a acid to help
break down the proteins, it only remains to point out
an acid that suits the foods and flavour you desire.
red meats I recommend red wine or a red wine vinegar
(or a combination of)
white meats white wine or a white wine vinegar
(or a combination of)
fish white wine, white wine vinegar or any citrus
juice; lemon, lime, orange etc (or a combination
have the acid more than 1/3 (I recommend 1/4 as
ideal) of your total marinade, or it will turn from
breaking down the protein to actually ‘cooking’
good quality oil can be added to the marinade, but
only in small quantities (no more than 1/4 of the
total marinate) if the food is low in fat, like
cuts in the foods to reduce marinating times and
increasing flavour absorption; scoring meats and
some fish (squid is great for this technique) in
a neat criss-cross fashion, will give a spectacular
effect when you cook them.
this add flavours that suits your individual taste:
are limited only by your imagination. Armed with the
above information I suggest experimenting and finding
what suits you best; what flavours, how long etc. Think
about what suits the cooked food and build a marinate
around it: orange for duck, red wine and juniper berries
for venison, etc.
and Cooking Tips
and raised in Plymouth, Tallyrand started his initial
training as a chef at Plymouth College of Further Education.
It was here that he was to learn his love, his passion
for food and the culinary arts. From here he headed
to Germany to complete his apprenticeship as Commis
gave him his first taste of cooking for the rich and
famous, as half way through his first year, along with
the Sous Chef and a Chef de Partie, he was whisked off
to Cologne to help prepare meals for a political conference,
where amongst other dignitaries they cooked for Mr Brehznev,
the then powerful Russian leader. This was to prove
to be just one of the many celebrities he was to cook
for or get to know over the years . . .
you would like to find out more why not visit Tallyrand's
own web site www.tallyrand.info (link in main menu)
Email Hub-UK : firstname.lastname@example.org